There is definitely some hard science and wisdom behind the phrase “Let sleeping dogs lie”! Downtime is so important for dogs. Keep reading to find out more about nap time for our canine companions.
How much sleep should my dog be getting?
The canine ethogram suggests that adult dogs should get around 12-14 hours of sleep every day, and even more than this for puppies. Sleep gives dogs the chance to process the day’s memories and allows their bodies to repair and rejuvenate, the same way that it does for humans. It helps keeps everything from their mental well-being to their immune systems in a good place and ticking over nicely.
Why do dogs need more sleep than us?
It is generally recommended that humans are able to get 7-8 hours of quality sleep to promote optimum health, so why do dogs need nearly double this?
Scientists believe that the answer lies in our sleep cycles and REM patterns. REM, or rapid eye movement, is the phase of sleep in mammals that is essential for enabling functions such as learning and memory.
Dogs spend about 10% of their time asleep in REM, compared to 20%-25% that humans have. With less time in REM, it may be that more sleep is required to process the day’s events. Spending less time in REM may also help dogs change their sleep patterns more readily, making deep sleep (the real rejuvenating kind) more difficult to access.
Dogs are also not diurnal (fully awake in the day like humans) or nocturnal (awake at night). They are instead considered to be social sleepers that take cues from their social group on when to sleep. They can fall asleep quickly and easily depending on what is happening around them.
Why does my dog sleep more than your dog?
There are many factors that can affect the differences in sleep between different dogs:
Puppies will need more sleep than adult dogs (sleep is essential for growth hormone production!)
Older and senior dogs may need more sleep than young adult dogs to recover from their day
Sick and stressed dogs may also sleep more than healthy dogs
Some breeds are selectively bred to need less sleep to help them with their daily tasks (Working lines: think working cocker spaniels and border collies rounding up sheep on a farm!)
My dog goes to daycare and doesn’t sleep there…
If you are looking for a doggy daycare in your local area, always pick somewhere that allows your dogs adequate rest or sleep time. It is not a positive thing if your dog is coming home at the end of the day completely exhausted, having had no downtime – it means the day has been too much for them. At Surrey Canine Corner daycare, the dogs have two short nap times, but as much access to the “dog room” as they need if they want a little rest by themselves. The dogs here range in age from 7 months to seven years, and they actively choose to sleep together in a bundle (pictured below) during rest time even though there is plenty of space elsewhere in the room! The group snoring is truly something to behold
To summarise, if your dog is having a midday nap – let them enjoy it! Sleep is much more important to our canine friends than catching up on a bit of rest or being lazy. It is imperative for their well-being, their cognitive function and helps them lead happy and healthy lives.
Becki Gude PACT-KSA ABTC – ATI Surrey Canine Corner – Dog training, behaviour & Daycare
It’s that time of year again. The BBQs and paddling pools are out and the icecream van is jingling along at the end of the road. But behind closed doors our poor dogs are struggling. Educational graphics about walking dogs in extreme heat are everywhere and stories go viral involving strangers smashing car windows to let overheating dogs out.
In a nutshell: Us humans love a bit of sun, but heat waves can be dangerous for our dogs. This is because dogs are much less efficient than us at cooling down in warm temperatures. Whereas humans can sweat through pretty much any part of our body to cool down, dogs only have sweat glands in their feet and around their nose. This makes it much more difficult for them to remain cool and much easier to overheat.
Dogs can develop heatstroke very quickly in conditions like we are experiencing this week, and this can easily become fatal if not treated quickly. Thank you to those of you who are being sensible with your furry friends this week and staying out of the sun! Here are a few tips and tricks to make this time as comfortable as possible for your furry friends.
1 – Walkies at Dawn
If you do insist on walking your dog during a heatwave, get out there at the crack of dawn. Air temperatures and pavements tend to be cooler in the mornings than the evening, which will keep your dog safe. Stick to shaded areas and take water with you. Walkies in temperatures over 23C are not recommended.
2 – Low impact enrichment:
Asking your dog to find little treats around the house will get their mind working and can be just as tiring as a walk! Snuffle mats, frozen Lickimats and placing their toys in the paddling pool to fish out are excellent ways to keep your dogs entertained in the heat. Keeping things calm and relaxed is key! Too much over excitement can result in an increase in body temperature and lead to heat stroke.
3 – Keeping curtains closed and windows open:
Something as simple as this can help keep your rooms at home cool and your dog more comfortable.
4 -Invest in a Cool Mat for your dog to lounge on:
Purchasing a cool mat could be one of the best things you do for your dog this summer! Usually gel based, you can pop them in the fridge or freezer to get lovely and chilly. These can be found in all sizes at most pet shops, even for our bigger furry friends! If you can’t get hold of one, a cool damp towel can work just as well.
5 – Filling up the Paddling Pool:
For those water babies that like to wallow! These are available everywhere, I got mine off Facebook Marketplace for free!
6 – Adding a bit of water to their meals:
As well as providing a constant supply of cool, fresh water during the day, adding a splash to your dog’s meals is an additional method to keep them hydrated.
7 – Allow extra time for naps and sleeping:
Lounging about all day might be all your dog needs on those sweltering days. The calmer they are, the less likely they are to overheat. Allow those extra spread-eagle naps and keep checking that they are not getting too hot in their bed.
8 – Is your Doggy Daycare or Dog Walker still operating?
Ask your Doggy Daycare Facility and/or dog walkers what their protocols are during extreme heat. All reputable pet care professionals will know that walking dogs in this heat is dangerous. Many will offer pop-in visits as an alternative to a walk, or close Daycare altogether in this weather. If your Doggy Daycare or Dog Walker continues to operate as normal, do not feel obliged to send your dog if you feel they are being put at risk. You know your dog more than anyone and the professional should probably know better.
9 – Avoid travel where necessary:
Please do not leave your dog in a hot car, windows open or not! Sunshine coming through windows turns cars into turbo-greenhouses. Just don’t do it – It is not worth the risk.
10 – Keep on top of grooming:
It is a myth that all dogs should be close shaved in the summer – actually the opposite is true! Some breeds, such as German Shepherds, Malamutes and Samoyed, need to keep their fluffy overcoats to protect them from UV rays and this part of their coat actually works as an insulator to keep them cool. Your professional groomer will be able to advise you on the best way to keep your dog comfortable during a heatwave. A nice brush every day at home can also help remove excess fur and relieve your dog of extra bulk.
11 – Understanding how your breed is affected differently to others:
We know that some breeds and types of dog are more likely to develop heatstroke, even in less extreme conditions. Research has shown that Brachycephalic or flat-nosed breeds such Bulldogs, Pugs and Frenchies are at much greater risk of developing heatstroke than dogs with longer snouts (1). Also, dogs that weigh over 50kg are at much higher risk. Your little Pug may want to go for a walk with your Labrador, but may have to stay at home in a temperature that your Labrador can cope with.
12 – Knowing the signs of heatstroke:
Knowing the signs of heatstroke is one of the most important things you can do as a dog owner, especially during a heatwave. If you notice any of the following, please seek veterinary assistance immediately.
Reddened (or sometimes pale) gums
Vomiting or diarrhea
Mental dullness or loss of consciousness
Difficultly with coordination
Nose bleeds (or other bleeding issues)
Blood in Urine
If you are concerned that your dog is showcasing any of the symptoms, do not panic but act calmly and quickly. Get your dog out of the sun and sponge them down with cool (not cold) water and try to bring their body temperature down slowly. The most important thing to do is to contact your vet immediately for advice and help.
With all of this in mind, heat stroke in dogs can be fatal but also very easily avoided! Take care and make sure that your furry friends receive extra consideration through the heatwave, and try as many of these tips as you can!
(1) Hall et al (2020) “Incidence and risk factors for heat-related illness (heatstroke) in UK dogs under primary veterinary care in 2016” (online access) https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-020-66015-8
“Will going back to work after lockdown create separation issues with my dog?” This is a question I am being asked on an almost daily basis.
Whilst every case is different, I want to tell you a story about a dog called Daisy and my observations of her behaviour before, during and after lockdown.
I met Daisy when she was just 9 weeks old. I was hired to visit her on a daily basis shortly after she was adopted by her new family. At the time, I had been off work for four months recovering from an injury and her family were my first new clients when I reopened my business! Daisy essentially got me back on my feet and helped me heal after surgery, so I have always had a soft spot for her. To return the favour, I was there for her when her family were working. We bonded very quickly over our morning cuddles and puppy training sessions.
As the weeks went on, Daisy began to show signs of distress when her family left her in the morning. She became more and more destructive to her surroundings and started to damage the space she was kept in. This destruction was occurring in a very short space of time, sometimes in the 10 minutes between her family leaving and my arrival. It only ever happened when she was left alone, and it became clear that she was feeling extreme distress when separated from her people.
The pictures above show the beginning of a long series of destructive behaviours. Starting with minor objects like tearing up her puppy pads and paper, her behaviour over time started to become more extreme. When left alone she took chunks of plaster out of the walls with her teeth, destroyed furniture, ripped up clothes, shoes, DVDs, the children’s precious toys and smashed eggs that she’d pulled down from the side. Neighbours had reported constant barking and she also started refusing to eat and lost weight.
The problem became so intense and her behaviour so destructive, that at twelve months old, she came to live with me.
Behaviourist Dr. Karen Overall states that re-homing a dog with separation related issues (with someone they do not know) can cause more harm than good to their psychological state (Overall, 2013), so taking Daisy on myself seemed like the best option. With my husband and I both working from home, there would always be someone to keep an eye on her and she wouldn’t need to be left alone.
We started with confidence building – scentwork, gundog games and any fun training that she enjoyed (all 100% force free). We taught her how to retrieve items, play tug of war with our other dog Olive and kept all cuddles and grooming on her terms. Thankfully, her appetite came back and some of her other anxieties started to diminish. Her excessive drooling during the appearance of the hoover stopped and she started to choose getting into the bath when she was once terrified of getting wet. We were still not able to leave her alone, but her confidence had started to grow!
And then Covid-19 arrived.
Alongside feeling fear and disbelief at what was happening in the world and going into lockdown in the UK – I started to worry about Daisy. I was worried that a big change to her routine would create more insecurity and acclimatise her to constant companionship – something we really wanted to avoid!
But something interesting started to happen…
The more time we spent together in lockdown, the more Daisy started to wander off and do things by herself. By week 7 of being together 100% of the time, she was happily taking a chew outside in the garden and being in the sunshine by herself, something that she had not done before. She even started creating distance between herself and Olive – they’d settle down in separate rooms instead of always being together. She was also following me around the house less and less.
What I began to see, was a dog who had grown in confidence, not just in herself but in feeling secure with her relationship to us all. Instead of fearing or anticipating separation, she was actively choosing to create that distance herself, and she seemed to be enjoying the independence!
The forced togetherness of lockdown has helped make her feel secure for the first time in her life.
As lockdown started to ease, I started challenging her with forced separation by leaving the house in short increments. Not only was destruction now a thing of the past, but as I left she was actively taking herself off to her bed, settling down and falling asleep.
For our little family, lockdown has been a game changer in helping Daisy overcome her separation anxiety. Not being able to leave the house and spending extra time together has strengthened our bond and created the secure attachment that she desperately needed. Last night, we went to meet friends (the first time since March!) and she was left alone for four whole hours. This is the maximum limit I would ever leave my dogs for – and to have got to this stage with Daisy in just a few short months seems like a miracle! But why has this happened?
What do we know about Separation Anxiety (SA)?
Whilst there is no definitive cause, some researchers believe that attachment to a caregiver and separation anxiety are related concepts. According to John Bowlby, securely attached children have the confidence that the attachment figure will be available if needed, thus they are less anxious during separation (Bowbly, 1958). Some behaviourists believe the same could be true for our companion animals (Smolkovic et al, 2012). This would suggest that the more bonded and securely attached a dog is to their primary caregiver, the less distress they are likely to feel when separated. This certainly appears to be the case for Daisy. Lockdown has been the perfect opportunity for us to bond and be available for her 100% of the time, which in turn seems to have eased her anxiety around separation.
It’s important to remember, that not every case is the same. Daisy’s experience is unique to her and cannot be directly applied to other individual dogs. With this in mind, what else could be causing separation issues in our dogs?
Some researchers believe that some dogs may have a genetic predisposition to developing issues around separation. Studies have shown that some breeds and categories of dogs, such as gundogs may be more likely to develop these issues (Storengen et al, 2014). Some studies have also suggested that males are more likely to struggle with the condition than female (McGreevy, 2008). New research also suggests that some forms of SA are actually more accurately described as frustration behaviours instead of anxiety. We are learning more and more about it all the time, and this is why we need to listen to the experts and move with the science when it comes to treatment.
So what do we do about it?
New research from the University of Lincoln states that separation anxiety in dogs should be seen as a symptom of underlying frustrations rather than a diagnosis. Understanding these root causes could be key to effective treatment (LS de Assis, 2020).
The research identified four key forms of motivation behind behaviours commonly associated with SA, and suggest that animal behaviourists should consider these underlying reasons as the issues that need treating. These are:
“Exit Frustration” : Where the dog finds the event of the person leaving aversive. Common symptoms are reactivity towards the owners on leaving, or redirected aggression towards furniture and doorways in an attempt to get the owner back. This is potentially less about separation and more about reacting to someone or something leaving the “group” (seen more often in herding/pastoral breeds)
“Redirected Reactive”: These dogs want to escape, and become frustrated with barriers that stand between themselves and getting to their “thing” (this could be their owner or something else outside like a fox or cat). These dogs seem to have a lower tolerance for frustration and redirect this frustration onto other objects.
“Reactive Inhibited”: These dogs are more socially anxious and are frightened to be left alone. They are also more likely to experience other forms of generalised anxiety and are more likely to toilet indoors when left alone than the other groups. Sometimes dogs in this category need an intervention with medication before any behaviour modification or confidence building can begin.
“Boredom”: Dogs that are simply bored and looking for an outlet/something to do. This is less about anxiety and more about dogs not having their needs met.
of these categories shows a different motivation behind the
problematic behaviours, meaning that each category requires a very
different treatment plan. This can include anything from basic
training, medication, a change of diet, a small change in their
environment, extensive behaviour modification, a slight change of
routine or simply making sure the dog is getting its basic needs met.
An expert will be able to advise further and create personalised plan
for you and your dog.
believe that at the height of her distress, Daisy fit into Category C
– “reactive inhibited”. Whilst I never went down the medication
route with her, a big part of her treatment was confidence building,
overcoming multiple other anxieties through counter conditioning and
focusing on building a secure attachment.
If you find yourself struggling with separation related problems with your dog please reach out to your local APBC or CCAB registered clinical animal behaviourist or ask your dog trainer for a referral. Separation issues go far deeper than training alone and should always be overseen by a specialist.
wanted to write this article to give any of you struggling with
separation issues hope. You and your dog CAN overcome this, but it’s
important to find the right professional to assist you and the right
treatment plan for the individual that is your dog.
LS de Assis (2020) “Developing Diagnostic Frameworks in Veterinary Behavioral Medicine: Disambiguating Separation Related Problems in Dogs” Frontiers in Veterinary Science (online access) https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6978995/
Bowlby, J. (1958) “The nature of the childs tie to his mother” International Journal of Psychoanalysis, vol. 39, pages 350-371 Overall (2013) Manual of Clinical Behavioral Medicine for Dogs and Cats, Elsevier, page 244
Smolkovic et al (2012) “Attachment to Pets and Interpersonal Relationships” Journal of European Psychology Students, Vol. 3
Mcgreevy (2008) “Risk factors for separation-related distress and feed-related aggression in dogs: Additional findings from a survey of Australian dog owners” Applied Animal Behaviour Science, Vol 109, pages 320-328
Storengen et al (2014) “A descriptive study of 215 dogs diagnosed with separation anxiety” Applied Animal Behaviour Science, Vol. 159